Fly ash utilisation in all
as per applicable guidelines
Saplings planted in FY20
Carbon intensity achieved in FY20
Material Topics Addressed
Key Risks Considered
Stakeholder Recommendations Addressed
Focus on sustainability with an intent to attain carbon neutrality
IMPACT ON OTHER CAPITALS
Our performance in Natural Capital has a significant influence across all other capitals.
Social & Relationship Capital
Since the start of the Industrial Revolution, our planet’s natural equilibrium has been progressively disturbed which, among other factors has accelerated the global warming process, restricted natural habitats and put a strain on available resources. This will impact our future generations in ways that will be hard to mitigate if we do not act and continue business as usual. As a responsible member of the society, Tata Power is committed to play a leadership role in combating adverse climate change while achieving sustainable growth. We are aligning our interventions with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and India’s Nationally Determined Contributions to translate the world's needs and ambitions into sustainable business solutions. These solutions will enable us to better manage our risks, anticipate consumer demand, build positions in growth markets, secure access to needed resources, and strengthen our supply chains, while moving towards a sustainable and inclusive development path.
Embodying this spirit, we have introduced the SDG dashboard for monitoring business-related parameters on four prioritised SDGs. This covers environmental, operational, innovation or technology-linked, and growth-related parameters for our operating divisions and supporting functions. The dashboard includes key performance indicators from the erstwhile Green Manufacturing Index (GMI). Tata Power has a dedicated Environmental Policy, along with policies on energy conservation, sustainability, e-waste management etc. These policies encourage the Company to conserve resources, reduce environmental impact, seek to enhance awareness among employees and make business decisions. We are fully compliant with prescribed permissible limits as per the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and respective state pollution control boards (SPCBs) for air emissions, effluent discharge, and solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. In addition to the statutory parameters, the beyond compliance parameters, like CO2 intensity, efficiency of the operating plant, water conservation and waste recycling are also monitored.
Our efforts at reducing emissions
The impact of pollution from burning fossil fuels are being keenly felt across the globe. To mitigate the impact, Tata Power is in the process of transitioning to less-polluting sources of energy with minimal adverse impact on climate change and biodiversity. We are steadily building up our green portfolio. The acquisition of Welspun Energy (1,010 MW) in 2016 was a step in this direction. We are also developing an exit plan to phase out our existing thermal power plants and have pledged not to pursue greenfield or brownfield projects in that sector. An increased share of renewables in the total energy portfolio, coupled with increased energy efficiency, is projected to consistently reduce our total CO2 emission intensity in the near future.
SUMMARY OF GHG EMISSIONS
(SCOPE 1, SCOPE 2 AND SCOPE 3)
*The source of emission factors used for the calculation of Scope III emissions is IPCC tool version 2.6.
Along with GHG emissions, release of air pollutants is a major source of concern for our stakeholders. While the former has long-term impacts on our climate, the latter has immediate health impacts for our community, leading to acute and chronic respiratory ailments as well as other serious health disorders. We aim to control air pollution at source by utilising efficient generation technology, efficient controllers and tall stacks for wider dispersal.
Measures undertaken to control air pollution:
FOUR MAJOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS —
JOJOBERA, TROMBAY, CGPL AND MAITHON
In the present scenario of deteriorating climate conditions, energy conservation is an effective tool towards the mitigation of CO2 emissions. We, at Tata Power, believe that energy conservation is the most economical solution to energy shortages faced by India. Tata Power strives to be efficient in its operations by utilising auxiliary energy conservatively and installing energy efficient devices.
Our energy-saving initiatives in generation
Currently, Trombay leads the way in least auxiliary (aux) energy consumption among thermal power plants.
Initiatives implemented in Trombay to optimise auxiliary consumption:
Total auxiliary energy consumed in FY20
Improving operational efficiency
To further achieve operational excellence, several initiatives have been planned or already commissioned to enhance the efficiency of our power plants.
MAITHON POWER L IMITED (THERMAL)
Based on System Integration study and minimum parameters required for reliable full load operation of the plant, Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP) de-staging assembly has been incorporated at Maithon Power Limited, with a view to achieve the best possible auxiliary power reduction, without affecting the reliability of the plant operation. Auxiliary power saving by CEP de-staging with 90% station availability was about 1.58 MUs for FY20.
During winter, under favourable weather conditions and low Plant Load Factor, we established an interconnection at the Circulating Water (CW) system. This enabled us to stop one CW pump, which saved auxiliary power without affecting the required vacuum for the unit. In FY20, 0.60 MUs of auxiliary power was saved through this approach.
Energy performance of HT drives was improved by undertaking CW interconnection, optimisation of boiler feed pump during partial load, optimisation of cooling tower fans during winter and night, reduction in feed water header pressure, etc.
KODIHALLI (SOLAR PV)
A Robot has been deployed to clean solar panels, which helped bring down operating expenses, and increase generation efficiency of the solar plant.
COASTAL GUJARAT POWER LIMITED (THERMAL)
VFD for Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP)
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) for CEP was installed to achieve reduction in Auxiliary Power by decreasing the frequency of the pump below design considerations and keeping deaerator control in open condition. In FY20, 11.74 MUs of auxiliary power was saved through this initiative, reducing CGPL’s total auxiliary consumption by 0.04%.
Reduction of clean up cycle time
The clean-up process at start-up was reviewed and benchmarked with other utilities. Major recommendations were implemented in the area of clean-up process, as well as operational and chemistry aspect of start-ups. These measures reduced auxiliary consumption by 0.2 MUs and saved 1,000 m3 of De-mineralised (DM) water in FY20.
Improvement of Hot Re-Heat (HRH) temperature
and adjustment of Yaw mechanism
This approach is used to fine tune the Yaw setting, thereby minimising flue gas maldistribution in the upper furnace. This led to an improvement in HRH steam temperature and in the heat rate by 3.5 kcal/kWh in FY20.
IYYERMALAI (SOLAR PV)
In the monsoon season, isolated modules and strings caused ground faults leading to 0.42 GWh of generation loss, notwithstanding the major steps taken to correct it. In FY20, re-conduiting of cables was done to avoid ground faults and increase generation. Around 0.42 MUs of generation loss was avoided in FY20 by re-conduiting the cables
MAITHON POWER L IMITED (THERMAL)
An Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) model-based project has been implemented for overall Station Heat Rate (SHR) improvement and moving towards autonomous power plant. Digital twins at Unit 1 and 2 will recommend heat rate optimisation for steady state (full load or partial load), which will, in turn, help run the plant automatically at optimum level.
COASTAL GUJARAT POWER LIMITED (THERMAL)
Laser-based technology (SPPA-P3000 Combustion Optimisation Technology) has been planned for implementation at one unit of CGPL Mundra. It involves measuring and homogenising the combustion process to avoid local emission and temperature peaks. This gives room for the optimisation of excess air level, which is beneficial for both emissions and efficiency.
Heat Rate is calculated for all thermal power plants by comparing the energy consumed by each plant and the corresponding energy generated. The Energy intensity Ratio (Heat Rate) for thermal plants is represented below, with CGPL leading the way, on account of various innovative measures undertaken.
Building on these accomplishments, we have further plans to implement more initiatives to bring down the station heat rate at our various power plants.
We take cognisance of the perils of over-consumption of natural resources in the short- and long-run. Currently, majority of the coal for thermal power plants is sourced from coal mines in Indonesia. The ongoing transition to renewable energy is enabling us to reduce our dependence on non-renewable resources, especially imported coal, and drastically reduce the associated impacts from mining of these raw materials. We are focusing on energy efficiency, renewable energy, and shift in fuel mix to more sustainable options in order to drive resource conservation and sustainable business operations.
We appreciate the importance of sustainable water management in our operations. Water is a critical natural resource for thermal power plants, which still constitute 72% of Tata Power’s domestic electricity generation portfolio. Best management practices are implemented across stations to minimise specific water consumption.
All the plants have implemented various water saving initiatives, resulting in a significant decrease in the specific water consumption.
Case study: At CGPL, Specific water consumption has improved from 0.193 m3/MWh in FY19 to 0.157 m3/MWh in FY20 with the following initiatives:
This has been achieved by:
CGPL received the 1st runner up award in the “Best Water Efficient Power Plant over 500 MW” category at Water Optimisation–2019 event organised by Mission Energy Foundation on 3rd May 2019.
Case study: At IEL Kalinganagar, our customer had formally requested for the reduction of specific water consumption as it was contributing to their overall cost of product. After exploring several possibilities, it was decided to recover seepage water from cable trenches.
We were able to recover 13,500 m3 of water, reducing our specific water consumption by 0.033 m3/MWh. In FY21, it is estimated that 45,000 m3 of water will be recovered amounting to significant savings for the customer. We are also exploring options to recover water from GIS cable vault and other neighbouring trenches.
Further, all the major effluents (service water effluents, coal handling plant effluents, ash pond overflow) are treated in Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) as per statutory norms of the respective state pollution control boards before reusing, recycling or disposing. Along with these initiatives, many plants and select receiving stations have initiated rainwater harvesting to ease the strain on existing water sources. Additionally, all the other effluents, including the boiler blowdown, are treated in the ETP, and the treated water is utilised subsequently for horticulture or green belt development, and for control of fugitive emissions from coal yard.
The cooling tower blowdown is cooled further and used as makeup for the service water system, coal handling plant water system, ash water system, firefighting, etc. The treated water is reused internally for horticulture/plantation/green belt development, as well as used for control of fugitive emissions from coal yards.
All power plants are operating with a “minimum water requirement and minimum effluent generation” system. All thermal power plants have cooling towers, except Trombay and CGPL, which have sea water-based once-through cooling system.
Process water required for thermal and hydro power plants forms the bulk of our water consumption.
Water source for power plants
WATER CONSUMPTION BY POWER PLANTS IN FY20
*includes Municipal water supply
As part of the water sustainability strategy for being future ready, we are taking efforts in all our operations to recycle and reuse wastewater. Currently, Jojobera and Maithon power stations have achieved zero-liquid discharge. Further, all wastewater generated at the captive power plants at Kalinganagar and Haldia are sent to our customer's ETP for recycling and reusing in their processes.
WATER RECYCLED, REUSED ACROSS OUR THERMAL AND HYDRO POWER STATIONS
*Figures for Trombay and CGPL include sea water withdrawn and discharged for once-through cooling system.
#Wastewater generated at Kalinganagar and Haldia is sent to customer for recycling and reuse.
^ Hydros use water collected in catchment area for power generation and release it entirely outside the project boundary for downstream consumption. These stations don't consume any surface water in process of generating electricity.
Further, the transition towards RE projects is expected to substantially decrease water requirements, thereby reducing the cost and water footprint of our customers, as well as immensely benefiting the community and the environment.
We manage our generated waste in an environment friendly, socially responsible and techno-commercially viable manner. The single largest form of solid waste generated from Tata Power’s thermal power plants is coal ash (from combustion of coal), besides other types of wastes such as municipal or domestic wastes, hazardous wastes, biomedical wastes and e-wastes.
There are no significant solid wastes associated with generation of electricity from oil and gas-fired plants. Hydropower, wind and solar power produce insignificant, if any, amount of solid waste. We ensure that the best waste management practices are implemented to reduce, reuse and recycle the waste generated. In addition to recycling, a strong focus is placed on identifying opportunities to prevent waste or bring new life to materials that might otherwise be discarded.
Tata Power has implemented several initiatives to responsibly manage the waste
* 100% fly-ash utilisation achieved in FY20 as per norm
The majority of our non-hazardous waste comprises fly ash and bottom ash. This is redirected towards construction (RMC as per fly ash notification) and quarry filling (as per SPCB NOC). All the generated waste is channelled to authorised recyclers only. Additional non-hazardous waste at generating stations generally comprises of metal scraps and scrap wood. For distribution and transmission utilities, it primarily includes oil drums, scrap cable and metal pieces, meter boxes and assorted iron mix.
Small quantities of hazardous wastes are generated in Tata Power, which are stored in suitably identified locations. As per the regulations, hazardous wastes (non-recyclable) are required to be sent to the respective State Pollution Control Board (SPCB)- approved common Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF), and is adhered to by all our units.
For distribution and transmission companies, hazardous material typically includes used transformer oil, scrap lead batteries, lead sheathed cable pieces, spent oil etc. For thermal power generating companies, it comprises used oil, waste residue containing oil, spent ion-exchange resins etc, while sets of battery primarily constitute the hazardous waste for Hydros.
SUMMARY OF NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED
Case study: An Integrated waste management programme has been implemented at CGPL to ensure environment friendly and safe disposal of waste as well as gainful utilisation of resources.
The programme focuses on three aspects
SUMMARY OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED
* 338 MT of the hazardous liquid waste at IEL Kalinganagar comprises of drip pit water which contains small amounts of corrosive chemicals. This water is treated and reused.
We are conscious of the other waste types generated at our power stations, and manage it diligently in accordance with regulations. Biomedical wastes are segregated and are placed in buckets of different colours as per the notification for Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules and are disposed of through authorised vendors, across all locations. For the reporting period, 1.15 kg of Biomedical waste was generated at Tata Power (at the Jojobera power station). E-wastes are disposed through authorised vendors for reuse or reprocessing in a responsible manner. Similarly, scrap lead batteries are disposed of in accordance with Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules.
We are pleased to report that there were no incidents of significant spills during the year under review. A spill is considered significant when it results in financial liability from regulatory bodies or any other organisations. Tata Power does not transport any hazardous wastes categorised under the Basel Convention. There were no discharges of untreated water to any water body and no water bodies were affected by discharges and/or run-off.
Tata Power’s commitment to nature conservation and strengthening biodiversity is well known. A formal governance structure is in place that allows for systematic biodiversity management across the organisation.
Principles guiding our biodiversity management practices:
All Tata Power locations have planned their layout for ensuring compliance with regulatory green belt requirements as stated in the Environmental Clearance for individual locations.
Native/local species are selected for plantation in the identified area. Horticulture expert is engaged for ensuring plantation and its survival. When new transmission line projects are being chosen, route selection is done to minimise disturbance to sensitive areas. Wherever necessary, compensatory afforestation is done. For operational transmission lines, only trimming of trees, to the extent of maintaining safe distance, is carried out. The Area adjacent to the corridor (Right of Way) remains untouched, except for occasional maintenance requirement. This helps in natural conservation and sustenance of the biodiversity and habitat in and around the transmission lines.
Before starting projects involving thermal discharge, we carry out Marine Environmental Impact Assessment studies through reputed organisations like National Institute of Oceanography (NIO). Adverse impacts, if any, are identified and suitable mitigation measures are accordingly built into the project itself. This ensures that there is no major impact on the marine environment.
Trombay and CGPL, both use once-through sea water cooling system. Adequate length of pre-cooling channels for cooling the hot water discharge from condensers are provided at both the plants. This ensures that the thermal discharge temperature is below the regulatory prescribed limits for the same all the time. This ensures there is no adverse impact on marine environment in the surrounding.
Conservation Initiatives – Preserving Western Ghat Biodiversity Hotspot
Our hydro power operations are located in the northern part of the Western Ghats, which is an important biodiversity hotspot in the world. Rajmachi sanctuary, Thamini sanctuary, and Sudhagad sanctuary are in close proximity to our areas of operations. As the Western Ghats are known for being a biodiversity hotspot, preserving the catchments has become a national priority that we have extended our wholehearted support to. Over the past 40 years, we have planted saplings of fast-growing tree species, native to the Western Ghats, on hill slopes of the lake catchments. The afforestation programme was intensified in 1991 and continues till date. Today, the total area under forest cover is around 1,200 hectares. During the last decade, the focus has been on growing indigenous local tree species found in the Western Ghats. These plants are nurtured at the nurseries of Tata Power in Lonavala. This process is necessary to promote the biological diversity in the eco-forest system and, in turn, restore the habitat for selected fauna.
Due to our diligent efforts, over 100 lakh saplings have been planted across different locations in the hydro catchments in Maval and Mulshi areas. Through this effort, we aim to make the area scenic with a healthy ecosystem, in the hope that this will attract several species of animals, birds and butterflies, thus ensuring that the Western Ghats continue to be known as a biodiversity hotspot across the globe. For better planning and implementation, the aqua diversity of few lakes have been studied, measured and appropriate steps towards conservation have been taken. Habitat and breeding grounds of fishes, birds, reptiles and important grasslands are being protected. Scientific studies on birds, reptiles and wild orchids have also been carried out and documented in the form of books.
Case study: Tree Mittra
Tree Mittra is a flagship volunteering initiative of Tata Power under the "Be Green" theme, which aims to encourage employees and their families to adopt a plant and nurture it to ensure its survival. The initiative was launched at selected Hydros and rolled out across other locations of Tata Power. So far, we have planted and nurtured around 10.3 lakhs trees across Tata Power under our Tree Mittra initiative, thereby creating a positive impact on the environment.
Case study: Mahseer conservation
The Mahseer are a species of freshwater fish most of which face the threat of extinction in the wild. They are important cultural and biological icons of the rivers of India, linking livelihoods and biodiversity conservation to each other. The survival of the magnificent Mahseer, one of the 20 mega fishes of the world, is important for the preservation of our eco-system. The health of this fish is linked to the health of India's big rivers, including the Ganges. With the 'Save Ganga Movement' picking up over the last few years, one expects the Mahseer to be able to reap the benefits of this high-profile programme. Clean rivers certainly help the 'Act for Mahseer' initiative, as polluted and toxic waters are one of the main reasons for the depletion of its numbers. Tata Power has taken up the conservancy programme of the Mahseer in right earnest. Efforts are being made to convince the local people about the loss on lucrative tourism market if the programme does not succeed. There is an endeavour to sensitise and encourage the people to 'Act for Mahseer' and work towards a common goal of ensuring the survival of the Mahseer. The Mahseer is known to be tough and has always shown an inclination to travel upstream in fast flowing waters and against the tide – ironically it is also fighting an uphill battle against extinction.
The mighty Mahseer fish species is recorded in the IUCN Red list species. Although not affected by our operations, for almost six decades we have strived to conserve this legendary fish. In line with its core pillars of sustainability, 'Care for the Environment' and 'Care for the Community', Tata Power has pledged its commitment to conserving the Mahseer. We have done a lot of research on Deccan Mahseer, which originates from Western India, and Golden Mahseer, which is from Northern India. Tata Power’s Hatchery is the only hatchery in India which breeds Mahseer on a large scale. The hatchery breeds around 4 to 5 lakh Mahseer fries every year which are then handed over to the respective state fisheries department as part of our conservation programme.
Holistic conservation and management strategies were devised to sustain and replenish the local population of Mahseer, which encompassed:
The first documented record of the Hump-backed Mahseer in the scientific literature dates back to 1849, when British naturalist Thomas Jerdon mentioned collecting in the River Cauvery, a juvenile specimen of a mahseer that grows to enormous sizes. There had been no comprehensive assessment of the distribution, threats or conservation-needs of this iconic species. A study was funded by Tata Power and implemented by the Mahseer Trust, Bournemouth University Global Environmental Solutions (UK) and Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS), to inform future conservation and policy actions. The earlier research conducted by the project team helped establish the taxonomy of Humpbacked Mahsheer as Tor remadevii, which also facilitated its first IUCN Red List assessment, making this the first Mahseer to be declared as Critically Endangered. The major threats to Mahseer identified included illegal fishing, pollution and introduction of exotic species, among others.
We have also been instrumental in rescuing wild animals and releasing them back in the wild. So far, we have rescued pangolins, sambars, wild boars, red spurfowls etc. Certain endemic and endangered species of trees are also planted in our areas of operations as part of our biodiversity conservation programme.
Tata Power's inception a century ago is a unique saga of the Founder's vision to provide clean energy to the city of Mumbai with minimal impact on the environment. Today, in our quest to deliver clean energy globally, we are focusing on building a robust renewable energy portfolio, scouting for clean sources of power, reducing our carbon footprint and investing in cleaner technologies and global resources. Our pledge to being Carbon Neutral by 2050 is indicative of the fact that, while having ambitious growth plans, we are committed to 'responsible growth'.
Tata Power, in association with Ela Foundation, launched the third book of its biodiversity series – ‘Reptiles of the Northern Western Ghats’ - a compilation of over 123 endangered species of reptiles in the biodiversity of the Western Ghats.